Human Resource Management in the Organization
What is human resource management?
Human Resources management it is a part of the management of the organization. It is one of the basic tasks of the enterprise, as well as the concept of the implementation of the personnel function of the organization, the task of which is to create an integrated mechanism, adjusting the characteristics of human resources (along with the private needs of employees) to the company’s goals and tasks in a harmonized manner. This approach is presented as a system supporting the mission, vision and strategy of the organization. It is worth emphasizing, however, that HRM is not the primary area of the enterprise.
Rather, we can speak of a feedback loop, in which HRM and all elements of the management system (including organizational culture) influence each other. The company’s mission, vision and strategy are not an external creation, imposed on the company, but something specific – created thanks to human ambition, imagination and competence. However, they become completely worthless when employees are unwilling or unable to implement them. Goals can be more or less ambitious, but you need to be able to achieve them. The feedback mentioned above actually happens between people. This is confirmed by K. Weick’s thesis about the purely personal nature of the organization.
In the literature, you can find many different nomenclatures related to human resource management, such as “personnel management”, “personnel policy”, “labor resource management”, “social potential management”.
This problem is illustrated by the following quote: “(…) human resource management is not an ordinary synonym for personnel management. Many people use both terms interchangeably, failing to recognize, however, that human resource management is much more comprehensive than personnel management. Personnel management is only one element of HRM”.The lack of a common position is related to the evolution of the approach to personnel issues in the organization and the perception of the role of the employee. It also results from different levels of personnel practices in individual countries, and even in enterprises operating in one country. It is also worth mentioning the linguistic conditions as well as the dynamics and richness of contemporary personnel issues.
Modern human resource management means a policy that consists of activities, functions and practices aimed at acquiring, developing, motivating and retaining human resources in a company. Thanks to this, it is possible to obtain a unique, difficult to copy set of enterprise competency features. Apart from personal tasks, the scope of HRM responsibilities also includes: health care, development of the payroll system, social care and shaping interpersonal relations in the work process.
It is also worth remembering that many companies use the term “human resources management” more than exaggerated, describing the functioning of their HR departments, which in fact boils down to the operation of traditional human resources. Everything is related to building the image of a modern enterprise, which makes you really forget about a person. HRM systems, thanks to the creation of an organizational environment that stimulates certain employee behaviors and attitudes, affect the financial results of the company and contribute to building a competitive advantage. In turn, improper management of employees can contribute to the loss of competitiveness. This shows how much in recent years HRM has grown in importance.
Human resource management:
areasThe most important areas of human resource management are:
- approach to employees as the strategic resource of the organization allowing for the implementation of its goals and gaining a competitive advantage,
- strategically combining the economic strategy with personnel matters,
- paying attention to the management’s commitment,
- taking actions aimed at combining interests of employers and employees,
- traditional activities related to personnel management.
Definitions of Human Resource Management If you
delve into the definitions of human resource management, you can find some comprehensive topic, presenting different perspectives that are really worth mentioning.
One of the broader, illustrating the point of view of the company’s interests is as follows: “Human resource management (HRM) is a relatively new approach to personnel management, which treats people as the basic resource of the organization. The more important issues in this area include: good communication with employees, including them in the current problems of the company and caring for their identification with the organization and loyalty to it. Much emphasis is placed on the strategic approach to attracting, motivating and leading people”.
- Pocztowski proposed the following definition: “Human resource management is a specific management concept in the area of the personnel function of enterprises, in which human resources are perceived as an asset of the company and a source of competitiveness, it is postulated to strategically integrate personnel matters with business matters, the active role of line management in solving personnel issues and the need to shape organizational culture, integrate personnel processes and build employee engagement as tools for achieving goals ”. It discusses many new and important issues in the area of HRM, but they only represent the interests of the company’s management.
The utilitarian nature of people in an organization is emphasized byin his definition Z. Pawlak: “Human resources management (…) consists in shaping and using the company’s human resources to achieve its goals, taking into account the interests of the employer and employees.”
opts for including the interests of employees in the definition T. Listwan. In order to denote the function of the personnel policy, the term human resources management is used mainly. He explains its meaning as: “… a set of activities (decisions) related to people, aimed at achieving the goals of the organization and meeting the needs (development) of employees“. In the long term, it assumes the possibility of convergence of interests and common direction of action of all entities (stakeholders). He treats the definition itself as an area of management and emphasizes its “subjective, holistic meaning“.
He emphasizes participation in activities in the enterprise: “under certain conditions, with his whole person – in the biological (physical), psychological and socialdimension.” Quoting the author further, we can learn that: “human resources management refers to people both as an object (object ) impact, and as causative entities, shaping employee teams in terms of numbers, quality features, their involvement and the results obtained. Therefore, people (specific employees) play a double role: on the one hand, they are the most important and, on the other hand, the most unreliable element of all the resources of the organization. This is the essential feature and, at the same time, the complexity of the function in question ”.
What are the goals of human resource management?
The main goal of HRM is to actively influence (thanks to employed employees) the company’s gaining a competitive advantage, reducing the level of uncertainty of the organization, developing greater efficiency and the possibility of its success on the market. T. Listwan distinguishes the following component goals:
- Fitness (social) goals – they include: achieving a specific position in the market and in the industry, the assumed profit in production, increasing the company’s value. In the case of employees, these goals may include: increasing work efficiency, mental performance or acquiring new skills.
- Humanistic (social) goals – relate to the company’s social responsibility towards its employees, the local community and the natural environment. It is: care for subjective treatment, improvement and development of employees, creating conditions for safe work, participation in management; care for hygienic production and waste management.
- Organizational and individual goals – they are manifested in the above-mentioned social goals. This is due to the fact that the task of entities responsible for the personnel function is to integrate individual and organizational goals. They concern: acquiring an employee, his motivation, expectations and ability to carry out collective tasks.
- Intermediate and final goals – procedures that we make in order to obtain staff with the desired number and specific qualifications. Its integration and motivation (i.e. intermediate goals) should be planned taking into account the specific result, i.e. the desired effectiveness, readiness and ability to improve, and adaptation to specific conditions (end goal).
Division of HRM:
- Listwan has also divided the set of HR management tasks into three dimensions, which support each other and are the basic requirement for achieving the goals of HR management:
- functional approach– processes, decisions and types of functions performed;
- institutional approach – takes into account the types of institutions (entities) involved in the implementation of the personal function,
- instrumental approach – takes into account the type of tools with which the function entities can carry out / carry out personal tasks.
Selection of an HRM system in an organization:
HRM systems should be selected depending on the nature of the organization. The configuration of the personnel function and the selection of appropriate practices should depend on the specific organizational context. This is called theory of emergency(contingencytheory), so the statement that there is no single, universal way of management that will work in all conditions. The human resource management policy should take into account the uniqueness and specificity of each organization, its external and internal conditions. The formulation of goals, policies, strategies and activity programs should take into account the conditions prevailing in a given company.
None of the “… established rules, rules of conduct in the organization can be effectively applied and used in every situation.” Along with the change of conditions, appropriate modifications, e.g. of the strategy, are needed. The content of the professional textbooks is only “… generalizations that suggest certain methods and give directions for action, but cannot be considered recommendations in the sense of establishing rules to be followed. The situational approach draws attention to the need to adjust what the organization is and what it would like to become (this applies to its strategy, culture, goals, technology, people employed and the external environment), and what it does (how its structure and processes , procedures and actions) ”.
There is no ready recipe for the functioning of HRM for all companies. The system in a specific situation must take into account the requirements of a given organization, which are specific. Human resource management will be different in a small family service company and different in a large manufacturing company. Many people should be involved in creating HRM. Ideally, it should be the so-called HR core (people with appropriately high competences and authority, associated with the company, being carriers of the organizational culture). Each enterprise that wants to achieve its strategic goals should have a more or less developed and properly selected HRM system. It is worth mentioning that in large organizations, the philosophy and strategy of human resource management does not have to be identical for all their areas. On the contrary, they should be diversified.
Human resource management function:
It is also worth discussing the subject of human resource management functions, which are as follows:
- Planning human resources – answers questions related to the company’s strategy, that is:
- How many employees do we need to employ?
- What should their skills, qualifications and experience be?
- When and how should they be hired or fired?
- How to choose the right candidates?
- Selection of human resources – this is the process of filling positions with the most suitable employees. It takes into account:
- defining job requirements,
- recruiting candidates, and
- selecting candidates.
- Employee appraisal – is understood as a management activity and the basis for personnel decisions, aimed at improving people’s work, staff development, improving the company’s department and the entire organization.
- Training and development – this is the process of teaching employees the skills necessary for their current and future position. Its aim is to increase the efficiency of the staff operation by shaping the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees.
- Motivating – stimulating to action that serves to meet specific needs of the employee and the organization.
- Parting with employees.